The time period from 1970 through 1979, in which the cyber
frontier blew wide open with hackers investigating the wired world. During this
Elder Days Era, phreaker John Draper learned that the free CapÂ’n whistle in
CapÂ’n Crunch cereal boxes reproduced the 2600-megahertz tone used by
long-distance telephone companies, thus giving him the capability to make
long-distance telephone calls for free. Also, Yippie Abbie Hoffman began the Youth International Party Line
newsletter to tell others how to get free telephone service and other cracking
tips; Dennis Ritchie developed a new computer language called Â“CÂ”; the first
personal computer (PC) appeared; the Apple computer was developed in 1977 by
Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak; and the first PC Bulletin Board System (BBS), a
virtual clubhouse allowing hackers to meet online, was put into operation.
See Also: BBS;
Draper, John; Jobs, Steve; Wozniak, Steve.
Schell, B.H., Dodge, J.L., with S.S. Moutsatsos. The
Hacking of America: WhoÂ’s Doing It, Why, and How. Westport, CT: Quorum
Books 2002; Schell, B.H. and Martin, C. Contemporary
World Issues Series: Cybercrime: A Reference Handbook. Santa Barbara,
CA: ABC-CLIO, 2004.