The events that took place
in the United States on September 11, 2001, had a profound impact worldwide and
enhanced citizensÂ’ fears about both terrorism and cyberterrorism. Within
minutes, two passenger jets controlled by terrorists of the al-Qaeda network crashed
into the twin towers of the World Trade Center in Manhattan and a third crashed
into the Pentagon in Washington, D.C., causing one side of the five-sided
structure to collapse. Shortly thereafter, a fourth jet crashed in a field
about 120 kilometers southeast of Pittsburgh. The latter crash was diverted by
passengers on the jet from its intended target: the U.S. Capitol.
Prior to this event, the media headlines in the United
States tended to focus on crackersÂ’
exploitsÂ—and incorrectly labeled the cybercriminal arm as Â“hackers.Â” Also, the FBI focused on the
exploits of hackers and crackers alike, often seeing both camps as major
criminals in society. After the September 11 event, media headlines in the
United States and elsewhereÂ—as well as the attention of the FBIÂ—turned sharply
toward terrorists and considerably away from hackers. This movement was visible
in the anti-terrorist laws that
were quickly passed in the United States following the September 11 event.
Crackers; Hacker; Terrorists; Terrorist-Hacker Links.
Schell, B.H., Dodge, J.L., with S.S. Moutsatsos. The
Hacking of America: WhoÂ’s Doing It, Why, and How. Westport, CT: Quorum